Friday, August 18, 2017

Is Game Of Throne's 'Iron Bank' A Veiled Criticism Of The IMF?

The Iron Bank of Braavos is the most powerful financial institution in the Game of Thrones. It controls the fate of nations, just like the real-world International Monetary Fund (IMF). In the Game of Thrones series, the Iron Bank of Braavos is the world’s most powerful financial institution. As the only “multinational” bank in its fictional setting, the Iron Bank controls the fate of powerful individuals and nations alike. This will all sound familiar to some people. These criticisms echo real world fears of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

What is the Iron Bank of Braavos?
In the Game of Thrones (GOT) series, the Iron Bank is an ancient financial institution. It’s founded by a group of traders, who used to hide their wealth in an abandoned iron mine (hence the name). As the bank grew in power, it gained the ability to finance entire kingdoms. In particular, the kingdom of Westeros is deeply in debt to them. As far back as the first season, Eddard Stark is shocked to hear the kingdom of Westeros owes three million gold dragons to the Iron Bank (and the same amount to House Lannister). In season three, Tyrion Lannister points out that the Iron Bank likes to finance a kingdom’s enemies, when said kingdom doesn’t repay its debts. True enough, the Iron Bank secretly backs Stannis Baratheon, who attempts to claim the throne for himself. A common saying of the Iron Bank is that “the Iron Bank will have its due”. Many rulers are both dependent on it, and afraid of it at the same time.

What is the International Monetary Fund (IMF)?
The IMF is a financial organisation dedicated to economic stability around the world. Founded in 1944, the IMF currently has 189 member countries, and its roles include fostering free trade, fueling economic growth, and reducing poverty around the world. One of the central roles of the IMF is loaning money to countries in distress. During the Greek Financial Crisis, for example, the IMF played a role just as vital as the European Union (EU). Unfortunately, the IMF has just as many critics as it has supporters. It’s often accused of interfering in local politics and having an inordinate degree of influence in how countries are run.

The Iron Bank Seems to Be a Veiled Reference to the Ugliest Sides of the IMF
The “Iron Bank” metaphor isn’t restricted to the IMF. It’s also partly inspired by the Italian city states in the later Renaissance, where banking was born. But it does seem to be a caricature of all the accusations often hurled at the IMF. These accusations, in the real world, pivot around how the IMF can influence the development of local politics, and hijack a country’s sovereignty. In a recent bailout to Egypt in 2016, for example, the IMF attached austerity measures – conditions such as slashing certain forms of social support – in order to bring the national budget back in line. These measures can significantly alter the lives of citizens. Cost cutting can mean that citizens suffer slashed pensions, see their housing subsidies dry up, receive fewer education grants, and so forth. But these are conditions the IMF can indeed impose, as the price of its loan. The behaviour of the Iron Bank in the GOT series embodies everything critics fear about the IMF. When the Iron Throne of Westeros seems unable to repay its debt, the Iron Bank goes on a programme of what – in our real world – would be called “regime change”: they fund Stannis Baratheon, a challenger to the throne. Despite being a complete outsider, the Iron Bank is able to influence Westeros better than even the kingdom’s own people (and many of its lords). The Iron Bank also has a tendency to maximise its leverage, by calling in due loans at the worst times. After Tywin Lannister’s death, the Iron Bank calls in a tenth of the amount they’re owed, which is twice the amount of money that the kingdom actually has. However, the Iron Bank should have realised the kingdom would be in no position to pay, precisely because of the chaos following Tywin’s death. This is another criticism commonly levelled at the IMF. Their loans are virtually impossible to repay (by design or bad management), because of the nature of countries that borrow heavily. Countries that tend to be mired in debt – such as during the rebuilding from a war, or from a collapsing economy – are the ones that need big loans from the IMF. Countries that are well-developed seldom need the IMF, and are often the ones contributing to it. Yet this perpetuates a system where vulnerable or developing countries are perpetually stuck in debt; and they have to live in fear of the debt being called in, if don’t listen to the IMF, or its major contributors. Notice that once Cersei repays the debt, the Iron Bank immediately offers another loan. But why would they? Westeros is ravaged by war, winter is coming, and there’s a big risk they wouldn’t be able to repay it. There’s only two possible reasons the Iron Bank would extend such an offer: short-sightedness on their part, a desire to hold Westeros in control with their wealth, or even a combination of the two. This mirrors the dual accusations often hurled at the IMF, which either paints them as incompetent, or as political manipulators.

The Real World IMF is Not So Simplistic
Volumes can, and have, been written about whether the IMF is a boon to societies. For all its faults, the IMF has done a lot to help developing and disaster-struck nations. The Iron Bank seems to be based on only the darkest and most negative stereotypes affixed to the IMF, along with snide references to the nature of banking (the Iron Bank was founded by slaves, and now in turn enslaves others through money). Perhaps Cersei should follow up on that idea of Westeros having its own bank.'s #1 personal finance comparison platform by transaction volume, provides consumers with timely money insights and aggregates the latest credit card offers and up-to-date personal loan deals.

Monday, August 7, 2017

Your Attitude Towards Money Needs To Change When You're 35 Years Old

As you move to the later stages of life, you need to react differently towards windfalls and financial crises. Here’s how your money attitudes will change by age 35. Age plays a significant role in personal finance. It’s not just a matter of how many dollars you have. There’s a deep emotional and psychological change in the way you react to receiving windfalls, encountering financial crises, and managing debt. In order to cope with it, your mentality toward money – from saving to investing – will have to change when you reach age 35.

You Need a Different Attitude Toward Debt
When you’re in your 20s, a lot of the debt you encounter is small enough to be paid off at one go. A typical example is credit card debt. If you tighten your belt and budget for four to six months, it’s usually possible to pay off even a maxed out a credit card. Most credit cards are capped at two to four times your monthly income. When you are 35 and older however, you will start to gain debts that can’t be paid off this way. An example would be your home loan, which typically takes 25 years to pay. A car loan has a tenure of five to seven years, and university fees (perhaps for your children) can run up to five years. These loan amounts are in the hundreds of thousands, possibly over a million in the case of private property. You can no longer rely on the old method of “budget for a few months and get rid of it”. Your financial planning has to change. As you can’t “go on a saving spree” to settle these debts, you need to treat them as fixed expenses. One method is to save enough to service these debts for six months. For example, if your home loan costs S$4,000 a month, you might go on a tight budget until you’ve saved up six months of the mortgage (S$24,000). After that, the money could go into investing for your retirement instead. But you must accept that the debt is a fact of life, and adapt your long term spending to its presence.
You Need Stronger Internal Controls Over Your Money
Consider that, among the jackpot addicts in Singapore, nine out of 10 are in their 40s. You might assume that, at the age of 35 or above, we would be more financially mature; but that’s where a new issue crops up. At the peak of adulthood, society assumes you’re mature enough to handle money. Also, as you’re nearing the peak of your earning power, it becomes easier to get larger loans. Banks hesitate to give a S$10,000 loan to a 20-year-old with a part-time job. However, the average 35 year old can get a personal loan approved in 15 minutes. This access to credit is accompanied by another dangerous factor: as society assumes you’re mature, fewer people will stick their nose into your spending. In your 20s, your parents or close relatives probably still keep one eye open: if they notice you’re getting addicted to gambling, or see the repeated letters from the banks, they may stage an intervention. When you’re 35 or older however, they may just leave you to your own devices. Overall, there’s less external control on your money – no one is managing your allowance, nagging you to save, or refusing you five digit loans. But this means you need to evolve strong internal controls to deal with it. Financial prudence has to become a fully ingrained habit, as all the controls are in your own head.
Your Attitude Towards Windfalls Have to Change
In your 20s, you have more opportunity to have fun with windfalls. If you unexpectedly come into money, you can treat yourself to a shopping spree or holiday. But from 35 onward, that will probably have to change. Remember what we said in point 1, about long term debts? You’d be better off using your windfall to ensure you have emergency savings, in order to keep servicing these debts during emergencies. Besides long term debt, having dependents will require you to change priorities. You can expect most windfalls to go into what the children want, rather than what you prefer. This does take getting used to: unlike your younger days, you won’t feel the significant (temporary) jump in your lifestyle from unexpected money. Instead, you’ll have to learn to take comfort in a sense of greater security.
Unexpected Costs Tend to Be Larger
As you move to the later stages of life, unexpected costs tend to be larger. In your 20s, and unexpected cost might be a broken laptop that costs you S$1,600. At 35, an unexpected cost could be your elderly parent developing a health condition, which will cost S$2,000 a month for the rest of their life. In the event that you lose your job, you can’t simply go home to mope until you find a new one. Mum and dad probably don’t run the house anymore, so your home will have (1) an empty fridge, and (2) no one to pay the mortgage or utility bills. Everything is now on your shoulders, and the world won’t give you a break to recover. You’re either prepared for unexpected costs, or you’re sunk. From 35 onward, there is no safety net but what you can build for yourself. This means the measures you took before – such as having a few hundred dollars stuck in a drawer for “emergencies” – are not going to cut it. You need to have a proper savings plan, money in different places (from savings bonds to fixed deposits), and comprehensive insurance plans.
Don’t Wait Til You’re 35 to Get Started
Most Singaporeans learn all this the hard way, but you don’t have to. You can start cultivating good money habits before age 30 so that practices like saving your windfalls are ingrained in you as a 20-something. The sooner you start adapting to it, the less painful the shift will be when the time comes.'s #1 personal finance comparison platform by transaction volume, provides consumers with timely money insights and aggregates the latest credit card offers and up-to-date personal loan deals.

Friday, July 28, 2017

Can You Afford To Retire At Age 50 In Singapore?

Some Singaporeans want to retire at age 50 instead of the usual 65. Here’s how to make a realistic estimate of how much you need to earn and save. Most Singaporeans expect to retire at 62 or 65. However, some Singaporeans are ambitious or have other goals. It’s hard to climb mountains at age 65! This means there are a few Singaporeans who aim to retire by 50 at the latest. But can you actually do that, and how much would you need? We take a realistic guesstimate.

First, Work Out the Income Replacement Rate (IRR) After Retirement
The IRR is, quite simply, the percentage of the income you have right now. The “correct” IRR is not the same for everybody, as we all have different goals. If you want a particularly lavish lifestyle at retirement, the IRR can be well over 100 per cent (that is, you want to have a higher income than you have now, when you retire). If you are content to live a simple life, with no travel and only home cooked meals, your IRR can be as low as 35 per cent (it is inadvisable to aim any lower, due to the hardship it would inflict). Most people would be comfortable at an IRR of 70 per cent (because even before retirement, most of us only have 70 per cent disposable income). This would more or less allow you to live at the same quality of life you have now. The median income in Singapore is around S$4,000 a month, or S$48,000 a year. Therefore, an IRR of 70 per cent for most of us would mean S$33,600 a year after retirement.
Work Out the Sum Total We’d Need to Last Till 90
It’s predicted that Singaporeans could live to the age of 90. It’s better to overestimate your lifespan than underestimate it. To be blunt, dying with excess money is not as difficult as living without it. Now assuming you retire at age 50, this means you have another 40 years to live. Your money has to last throughout that entire time. Earlier, we deduced that you need S$33,600 a year in order to maintain your lifestyle. Over 40 years, this would seem to mean you need around S$1.34 million. However, this isn’t enough because you also need to factor inflation. In developed countries like Singapore, the cost of goods tends to increase by around three per cent per annum. $1.34 million in the year, say, 2037 will buy you a lot less than it will today. So let’s say you are 30 years old today, and have 20 years to build up sufficient funds to retire at 50. The total you would need to accumulate over the next two decades is: S$1.344 million x (1+3) ^ 20 = $2.42 million
Now That’s Still Not Entirely Accurate
Remember, inflation still keeps going, even after you reach 50. This means your retirement fund of $2.42 million must – even as you spend it – keep pace with the three per cent rate of inflation. To do that, you’d need a balanced portfolio of different assets, which provides a regular income stream. You’ll have to talk to a qualified financial adviser for details on how to do that. But at least now, we have a ballpark figure as to how much we need to have by 50; and S$2.42 million sure seems like a lot.
The Bad News is, at S$4,000 a Month You Just Aren’t Earning Enough to Retire at 50
We’re going to exclude windfalls, like winning the lottery or inheriting a load of money. Let’s assume you have to do it the hard way. You have a target of $2.42 million, and you can reliably obtain a return of about four per cent per annum on your investments. Mind you, there are many products out there – such as Investment Linked Policies (ILPs) or stock trading algorithms – that will claim you can get much higher returns. However, these are risky, and we’re going with an amount that most people can safely manage. (It’s not our place to endorse financial products that give higher rates of return; you’ll have to decide which qualified wealth manager or financial planner to trust for that). At returns of around four per cent per annum, over 20 years, you would need to be investing somewhere around S$78,500 per annum, in order to reach S$2.42 million on time. This means that, at the very least, you would need to set aside S$6,541 a month to reach your target. Given that most people can afford to set aside 30 per cent of their paycheque for investment, this means you’d need a monthly income of about S$22,000 to retire at age 50.
That Sounds Really Hard
That’s because it is. Trying to retire 12 or 14 years before the usual retirement age is no mean feat. After all, there’s a reason most people don’t manage to do it. However, difficult is not the same as impossible, and there are ways some people have managed this. For example, you can lower some of the amount you need, by working less instead of not working at all, once you retire. You could also consider moves such as downgrading to a smaller house – given the appreciation of your property, this could cover a large portion of the retirement fund you need. Perhaps the most important consideration, however, is to stay insured and keep healthy. A chronic medical condition, or severe illness, is a common factor that could change this goal from being just difficult, to being impossible.'s #1 personal finance comparison platform by transaction volume, provides consumers with timely money insights and aggregates the latest credit card offers and up-to-date personal loan deals.


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